Mongol dating

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Unreached People Group of the Week - Tianba of China

2020.09.21 17:20 partypastor Unreached People Group of the Week - Tianba of China

I cut my finger open like a big dummy while I was making apple pie with my girlfriend this weekend so most of today will be copy paste but now introducing the Tianba of China!
How Unreached Are They?
Joshua Project has the Tianba at 0.00% Christian. That is inaccurate. However I do not have accurate numbers other than knowing that isn't accurate. So, there are at least a handful of believers in their population of 111,000.
There is a New Testament in their language/dialect! (However most of them cannot read)
What are they like?
Typical qualification that all people groups can't be summed up in small paragraphs and this is an over generalization.
The Tianba, as well as most of the Nosu, are traditionally farmers in the mountains. They farm soy, rice, rape seed, and a bunch of other stuff. They keep sheep, goats, water buffalo, and chickens. They are not limited to the old one child policy that China had, so many of them have at least 3 siblings, if not more. They are mostly animist (more on that later). Many of the Nosu peoples have a strong tendency to alcoholism, with the men drinking together all day and the women doing much of the work.
The Tianba Nosu have been influenced by Chinese culture more than the other Nosu groups in Sichuan, although they still retain their traditional dress and most of their ceremonies and customs.
About the Yinuo
Because of the distinctive style of dress formerly worn by the Yinuo Nosu, the region they inhabit is generally known as the "broad-legged trousers region." In the past, the striking characteristic of men's garments was the broad bottoms of the trouser legs. The men no longer where these in daily life. Sometimes there are culture festivals where traditional costumes are worn. The women's traditional dress, however, is still very much in use and can be seen on the streets every day. Women also like to wear wide pleated skirts. The number of pleats sometimes comes to more than one hundred. Girls wear multicolored headscarfs made of black cloth. Married women increase the layers of their headscarfs. After having a baby, they wear leaf-shaped bonnets.
History Lesson
Violent conflict, intertribal and interclan warfare, and the taking of slaves were commonplace among the various branches of the Nosu until recently. When preparing for war, clear rules were followed by the Tianba Nosu. These included "sending out a wooden tablet calling on all members of the clan, its tenants, serfs, and slaves to assemble; each family would assent by making a mark on the tablet; tallying the marks would indicate how large a fighting force might be expected. War costumes were extremely colorful: some wore hats of woven bamboo covered with white cloth, thin woolen felts and yellow satin, with animal hair that would wave in the wind; they would carefully prepare their hair, interweaving it with a strip of cloth and tying it into a horn just above the forehead; some would cap this with a sheep horn wrapped in colorful silk and red pompons. ... The Yi [Nosu] would run forward, shout out their names, and challenge their enemies to fight. The War songs were equally aweinspiring: 'We are the famous Black Nosu! We are the tigers who eat up human flesh! We are the butchers who skin people alive! We are the supermen!'" Joshua Project
What do they believe?
The religious world of the Tianba Nosu is a complicated mixture of polytheism, animism, and ancestor worship. Because of Chinese influence, elements of Buddhism and Daoism are also present. Joshua Project
How can we pray for them?
Brothers, my heart’s desire and prayer to God for them is that they may be saved. (Romans 10:1)
____________________________________________________________________________________________
Here are the previous weeks threads on the UPG of the Week for Reformed
People Group Country Date Posted Beliefs
Tianba China 09/21/2020 Animism
Arab Qatar 09/14/2020 Islam
Turkmen Turkmenistan 08/31/2020 Islam
Lyuli Uzbekistan 08/24/2020 Islam
Kyrgyz Kyrgyzstan 08/17/2020 Islam*
Yakut Russia 08/10/2020 Animism*
Northern Katang Laos 08/03/2020 Animism
Uyghur Kazakhstan 07/27/2020 Islam
Syrian (Levant Arabs) Syria 07/20/2020 Islam
Teda Chad 07/06/2020 Islam
Kotokoli Togo 06/28/2020 Islam
Hobyot Oman 06/22/2020 Islam
Moor Sri Lanka 06/15/2020 Islam
Shaikh Bangladesh 06/08/2020 Islam
Khalka Mongols Mongolia 06/01/2020 Animism
Comorian France 05/18/2020 Islam
Bedouin Jordan 05/11/2020 Islam
Muslim Thai Thailand 05/04/2020 Islam
Nubian Uganda 04/27/2020 Islam
Kraol Cambodia 04/20/2020 Animism
Tay Vietnam 04/13/2020 Animism
Yoruk Turkey 04/06/2020 Islam
Xiaoliangshn Nosu China 03/30/2020 Animism
Jat (Muslim) Pakistan 03/23/2020 Islam
Beja Bedawi Egypt 03/16/2020 Islam
Tunisian Arabs Tunisia 03/09/2020 Islam
Yemeni Arab Yemen 03/02/2020 Islam
Bosniak Croatia 02/24/2020 Islam
Azerbaijani Georgia 02/17/2020 Islam
Zaza-Dimli Turkey 02/10/2020 Islam
Huichol Mexico 02/03/2020 Animism
Kampuchea Krom Cambodia 01/27/2020 Buddhism
Lao Krang Thailand 01/20/2020 Buddhism
Gilaki Iran 01/13/2020 Islam
Uyghurs China 01/01/2020 Islam
Israeli Jews Israel 12/18/2019 Judaism
Drukpa Bhutan 12/11/2019 Buddhism
Malay Malaysia 12/04/2019 Islam
Lisu (Reached People Group) China 11/27/2019 Christian
Dhobi India 11/20/2019 Hinduism
Burmese Myanmar 11/13/2019 Buddhism
Minyak Tibetans China 11/06/2019 Buddhism
Yazidi Iraq 10/30/2019 Animism*
Turks Turkey 10/23/2019 Islam
Kurds Syria 10/16/2019 Islam
Kalmyks Russia 10/09/2019 Buddhism
Luli Tajikistan 10/02/2019 Islam
Japanese Japan 09/25/2019 Shintoism
Urak Lawoi Thailand 09/18/2019 Animism
Kim Mun Vietnam 09/11/2019 Animism
Tai Lue Laos 09/04/2019 Bhuddism
Sundanese Indonesia 08/28/2019 Islam
Central Atlas Berbers Morocco 08/21/2019 Islam
Fulani Nigeria 08/14/2019 Islam
Sonar India 08/07/2019 Hinduism
Pattani Malay Thailand 08/02/2019 Islam
Thai Thailand 07/26/2019 Buddhism
Baloch Pakistan 07/19/2019 Islam
Alawite Syria 07/12/2019 Islam*
Huasa Cote d'Ivoire 06/28/2019 Islam
Chhetri Nepal 06/21/2019 Hinduism
Beja Sudan 06/14/2019 Islam
Yinou China 06/07/2019 Animism
Kazakh Kazakhstan 05/31/2019 Islam
Hui China 05/24/2019 Islam
Masalit Sudan 05/17/2019 Islam
As always, if you have experience in this country or with this people group, feel free to comment or PM me and I will happily edit it so that we can better pray for these peoples!
Here is a list of definitions in case you wonder what exactly I mean by words like "Unreached"
submitted by partypastor to Reformed [link] [comments]


2020.09.20 23:46 ValakisAndMenk Who is the furthest west Mongol culture character in CK2 at the 769 or 867 start date

I want to do a Tögsköl Khanate run in CK2 at the 867 or 769 start date. I haven't played CK3 but I love to browse and I discovered among a list of titular titles is The Tögsköl Khanate whose capital is Rome and why I want to do it in 769 or 867 to give myself some time to prepare before I am ultimately crusaded harder than a Fatimid Egypt. Although I have had good luck in that regard when I was a Cathar Hungary who controlled most of northern italy including rome, but instead a viking irland who controls 3 duchies in western italy got yeeted by papa supreme. But I digress some help would be nice with this, thank you folks.
submitted by ValakisAndMenk to CrusaderKings [link] [comments]


2020.09.20 13:01 Urb4setick3t About the Anchient mediterranean territories

So recently I've found myself watching documentaries on Anchient Rome and one thing leading to another i edned up in Greece, Egypt, Persia, whatnot.
though i think I'm starting to get a grasp, I'd like to udnerstand better how all those big name civilizations were tied together, especially with look to early European history. the dates are not that important to me, Just the rough timeframe suffices.
Below, I'll try to super basically outline what I've gathered, so one gets an idea of what I already think to know. I also don't want to reach too far back so I'll just start where I think it starts coming together;
I'll also write it simply, so I don't have to worry about eloquency, pardon in advance:
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________Egypt ist super old, always been old, you've got Pyramids, Pharao. That goes on for a while.
Sometime later in Europe Greece emerges with its city states. timeline isn't clear however the Greek do their thing and fight Persians around 500 bc.
They sort of win that conflict, proceed to do their thing.
Some years later rome is founded, they do the republic thing, which goes on for a while until in +150bc the romans fight the greek to the east, defeat them mostly bringing northern greece (?) under their controll. (somewhere in tehre greece allies with carthage too?~ 200 BC?)
during caesars civil war, I remember pompei fleeing to greece so i assume most of anchient greek territory is, by that point, Roman soil.
sometime 100 AD the romans completely conquer greece (?).
then, when constantine becomes emperor he splits the empire, making it the byzantine emppire, effectively. the europeans, namely the franks or later french, grab a hold of the west, the churches of rome and constantinople clash, rome emerges the victor.
Later (?) the persians (werent they defeated?) fight the romans on the eastern front of greece (??)
somehow constantinople falls, marking the end of the roman empire to the east (or was that the mongols?)
egypts role isnt quite clear, etiher. you've got the old old egyptians, the greek line of cleopatra and the romans defeating them, incorporating them with defeat of marc anthony..?
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
I feel I got the very general gist but there's some large gaps I'd like to fill. Sadly history books and online resources mostly focus on one part and never the overarching picture!
If someone could (ELI5 please, I'm not that knowledgable) fill my story in and correct my (many) mistakes, I'd be super grateful!
Many thanks, all the best!
submitted by Urb4setick3t to AskHistory [link] [comments]


2020.09.19 13:28 N3DSdude AMA Discussion

We would like to welcome everyone here to the GhostofTsushima Japanese History AMA! The AMA is brought to you by the administrators of GhostofTsushima and the GhostofTsushima discord server, in conjunction with the Japanese History discord server. The panel assembled today for the AMA are some notable members of the Japanese History discord server, who focus/specialize on various periods of Japanese history. They will be on throughout the day to answer any questions you may have on the history of Japan.
Japan is a country with a rich history spanning thousands of years. The 8th century CE sees the ushering in of written records in Japan with the Kojiki and Nihon Shoki, and since that point the Japanese Islands have seen much change up until modern times. For much of this time, bushi/samurai played a central role in driving the events and conditions that the Japanese islands went through. This went beyond just the military side of things, with the effects of samurai reaching into the spheres of politics, religion, art & culture, economy, agriculture, etc. From their rise to center stage in the late Heian period, till the Meiji Restoration (1868 CE), samurai were directly involved in influencing many different aspects of Japanese history. Ghost of Tsushima is a game that is set during the first Mongol invasion of Japan, but the development team at Sucker Punch sought for the game to not only engage in historical elements from this time period, but as well as pay homage to other periods of Japanese history. It is for this reason that today’s panel includes many people whose area of focus covers many different periods, much of which do not deal directly with Mongol invasions of Japan. To best reflect the breadth and richness of Japanese history that the game could have drawn from, the panel group is able/happy to field questions from the Heian Period (starting in late 8th century CE) through to the Meiji Restoration (1868 CE). This includes various aspects of Japanese history such as military, political, cultural, religious, economic history, folklore and mythology, etc. Questions can be general/introductory level questions, questions on specific topics for the different periods, and everything in between. The panelists will look to satisfy questions and curiosities you may have to the best of their abilities.
To highlight who are panelists are, their areas of focus, and topics/periods they will be fielding questions for today, here is a list and description of the panelists:
u/Erina_sama - holds a Bachelor's Degree in History with a minor in Asian Studies. Focus of degree was mostly on social and political change during the Edo-Meiji transition. Has additional knowledge on topics of bushido, gender, and literature from early 20th century Japan.
u/gunsenhistory - Focuses on Muromachi and Sengoku period. Despite being an amateur, he is an avid reader of Japanese history and art books, and has a deep knowledge on Japanese Arms & Armors as well as military history of Japan. He has a blog on Japanese military history, which can be accessed here
u/IJasonnnnn - is a B.A. (Hons) Asia Pacific Studies undergraduate student. Currently conducting a dissertation on Imperial Japanese Korea, 1910-1945. Area of expertise is Imperial Japanese History, with keen interest in Japanese colonialism and Imperial Japanese politics. Other areas of interest include the Edo period, with keen interest in the Bakumatsu period.
u/ImmortalThunderGod79 - Although doesn’t have a degree. Is highly passionate about Japanese history and will seek out every source there is to use for research purposes via mainly primary sources and contemporary sources to accurately reconstruct history the way it was originally told. Is generally knowledgeable with most eras of Japanese history, but is more familiar with Sengoku Period history in regards to culture, customs, arms, weaponry and tactics. Analyzes Japanese history from a more humanistic and psychological point of view to help audiences better grasp an understanding of the ruthless and pragmatic mindset of the real Samurai that lived fighting in countless wars and political intrigues, aiming to overturn the common stereotypes often associated with the “honorable” Bushi warrior caste of Japan.
u/Linfamy - focus on Heian Period, currently delving into Kamakura Period. Doesn’t have a history degree but enjoys reading Japanese books on Japanese culture, politics, society, mythology, folklore. Has a YouTube channel about Japanese history/folklore, which can be found [here](youtube.com/Linfamy)
u/LTercero - focuses on Japan’s Muromachi and Sengoku Period, in particular, the socio-political climate which drove the military conflicts, general upheaval, and consolidation of authority in the 15th-16th centuries. He is a flaired user for askhistorians, and his work on there covering Japanese history is available here.
u/Morricane - has a master’s degree in Japanology and currently works on a doctoral thesis on shogunate politics and rule during the Kamakura period (1185–1333); apart from the history of warriors and warrior rule in Japan, he also has an ever-expanding interest in a variety of topics such as society and everyday life, kinship and family, gender, history of names, and law.
u/ParallelPain - has a B.A in History, Minor in Asian studies. Focuses on the Sengoku Period, and to a lesser extent the Bakumatsu, Edo, and Kamakura. He is a flared user for askhistorians and tries to keep the FAQ section for Japan up-to-date.
u/Saiken_Shima - enjoys all world history across all time periods, but mostly prioritizes Japan's Edo period philosophy, swordsmanship, arms and armor and the connections between them all. Self-studies Eishin-ryū Kenjutsu and travels an unending path of contextualizing our understanding of historical warfare.
u/touchme5eva - minored in East Asian history over in college but continued reading on the culture,economy and society (samurai or otherwise) of Edo Japan long after. Also enjoys reading on Japanese contact with Europe,Edo Japan,colonial Korea,Meiji Japan and a little bit of Taisho Japan. Has a few flaired answers over on askhistorians that can be found here
u/victoroftheapes - is a PhD. in History and works as a lecturer. Focus is on the Sengoku period in Kyoto, primarily as regards temples. He has also researched the Kamakura period.
AMA will last 24 hours!
submitted by N3DSdude to ghostoftsushima [link] [comments]


2020.09.19 11:48 greenpanda7 The world in 1400


Realm view
My first time achieving world conquest in CK; I never managed to do it in CK2.
Ended up taking the last county from the Mongols in 1358.
Started as King Sigurdr in 867 and reformed the Asatru faith in 956 around the time I formed the empire of Scandinavia. It was a religion of fundamentalist warmongers, designed to concentrate power in the hands of the Fylkiemperor. (In terms of doctrine, everything was a crime, and one of the tenets was religious law. Arrests and revocations were used to prevent anyone inside the empire from getting too strong. The religion also used mendicant preachers to speed up conversion and help prevent peasant revolts during rapid expansion.)
I tried to delay adopting feudalism for a while. (I'm not sure about the date but it says I reached the early medieval era in 1035). Switching to feudalism greatly reduces the size of your military from tribal levels, so I wanted time to spread the new religion in northern Europe and weaken the big neighboring states while I still had a strong military.
Through the whole game, I used the position as dynasty head to disinherit all but one of my sons, which let me pick good heirs and avoid ever splitting the realm during succession. Most rulers took the learning lifestyle so that they could use "restraint" to avoid having too many children, and use other perks to speed up religious conversion in conquered lands.
I managed to have a single emperor (Balder) reign for almost 80 years 1323-1400. His father Grimr had remarried after his first wife died, and Balder was born by this second wife when Grimr was already 70 years old. Balder took over as emperor at age 16 (having become heir in place of his much older brother) and lived into his 90s.
After clearing all other states from the map in 1358 (leaving nobody left for the warmongers to fight), Balder created a second new religion for the empire in 1368. This one kept religious law, but gave full equality for both genders, took accepting views of all crimes, replaced warmongering with legalism, and introduced a religious head of faith. (The ruling dynasty had been harboring a witch coven for a few generations and so reform was essential to keep the emperor from getting blackmailed.)
The religion had almost replaced Asatru by 1400 (after many, many, personal requests for conversion by the revered emperor).

Religions view
Cultures view

submitted by greenpanda7 to crusaderkings3 [link] [comments]


2020.09.18 11:22 Moscowguide Visiting the city of Suzdal on the Golden ring in Russia

Hi Traveller. Today we gonna continue our tour around the golden ring in the city of #Suzdal. I’m Alexander, a certified German and English speaking #guide. In my blog I’m gonna show you all the beuty of Russian cities and attractions and tell you a little bit about Russian history in both languages.
Susdal ist eine Stadt im Wladimir Gebiet. Sie liegt rund 220 km nordöstlich von Moskau am Fluss Kamenka. Die 10K Einwohner zählende Stadt gehört zu den ältesten Russlands und ist Teil #desGoldenenRings.
Suzdal is one of the oldest Russian towns. In the 12th century it became the capital of the principality, while Moscow was merely one of its subordinate settlements. Currently, Suzdal is the smallest of the Russian #GoldenRing towns, but it has more than 40 historically important monuments and 200 architectural sites. Several of them are listed as UNESCO World Heritage Sites.
The town's history dates back probably to 999 or 1024 and in 1125 the Russian prince Yury Dolgoruky made Suzdal the capital of the Rostov-Suzdal principality. Suzdal began to function as a capital at the time when Moscow was still a cluster of cowsheds. Suzdal remained a trade centre even after Mongol-led invasions. Eventually, it united with Nizhny Novgorod until both were annexed by Moscow in 1392.
At that time Suzdal is already among most important #Russiancities. It has also emerged as a central tourist destination to exemplify fine and ornate Russian architecture. Suzdal is one of Russia’s major religious centers with housing monasteries, churches, and cathedrals.
submitted by Moscowguide to u/Moscowguide [link] [comments]


2020.09.14 16:10 partypastor Unreached People Group of the Week - Arab (Gulf Spoken) of Qatar

Welcome back to the UPG of the Week! Sorry I missed last week, I was on a very long and very wonderful/fun road trip and completely forgot on Labor Day. Now, without further ado, meet the Arabs of Qatar.
How Unreached Are They?
The Arabs of Qatar are only 0.5% Christian (if that). That means that out of their population of 500,000, there are maybe 2,500. Thats 1 believer for every 200 unbeliever.
There is not a fully completed bible in their language (Arabic, Gulf Spoken)
[Edit: From u/jakeallen]
there are good translations into Modern Standard Arabic. If someone in this group learns to read, they learn to read MSA, not a dialect.
The internet can do some good. Facebook ads can lead people to the right messaging. But in person witnessing will build the church, which is the hardest thing to do right now.
What are they like?
Typical qualification that all people groups can't be summed up in small paragraphs and this is an over generalization.
Life for Saudi Arabs is one of harsh existence with few material belongings. Their main possession is the home - a long tent made from woven goat or animal hair. These tents are not permanent dwellings and are divided into two parts by a decorative partition called a gata. Typically, half of the tent is for the women, children, cooking utensils, and storage, while the other half is for the men. The men's section, which contains a fireplace built in the dirt, is used for entertaining guests. Men sit and make plans for the group, while the women do most of the work.
Animals are very important to the Saudi Arab lifestyle. Those who stay close to the desert's edge herd goats and sheep; whereas, those who travel and raid in the desert rely solely on camels. Sheep and goats are raised for monetary value, and camels are used for transportation.
Dairy products have been the traditional food source for Saudi Arabs. Camel's and goat's milk is drunk fresh or made into yogurt and a kind of butter called ghee. Most Arab meals consist of a bowl of milk or yogurt, or rice covered with ghee. Round loaves of unleavened bread are also served when available. Dates, which can be found in desert oases, are eaten as desserts after meals. Meat is served only on special occasions, such as for guests, marriage feasts, or special ceremonies.
Reflecting the influence of their Muslim religion, the Saudi Arab practice endogamous marriages (marriage within a small social circle). Inheritance is patrilineal (inherited by the next male family member). Saudi Arab clothing is designed for the harsh climate. It is made of lightweight, light-colored fabric and is also loose-fitting, allowing for the circulation of air. Joshua Project
History Lesson
Saudi Arabia is home to a number of different Arab groups. Saudi Arabs (more commonly known as the Gulf Arab) live primarily along the southern edges of the Arabian Desert in Saudi Arabia, Yemen, the United Arab Emirates, and Qatar. Saudi Arabs in Qatar speak a language called Arabiya or, as it is more commonly known, Gulf Arabic.
The Arab culture was developed by tribes of nomads and villagers who lived in the Arabian Desert. From there, some of them later migrated into northern Africa. There are two basic classes of Arab: the true nomads and the fellahin-those who have embraced farming. The nomads are best known for their treks across barren deserts on camels, occasionally raiding caravans crossing their paths. The fellahin are more settled, living on the edge of the desert. Most Saudi Arab are herdsmen, who move into the desert during the rainy winter season, then back to the desert's edge in the dry, hot summer. Joshua Project
What do they believe?
The founding of Islam in the seventh century profoundly altered the course of Saudi history. Today, the great majority of Saudi Arabs in Qatar are Hanbalite (Wahhabite) Muslims. In the mid-1700s, Mohammed ibn Abd al-Wahhab formed his fundamentalist sect, and today, the Saudi see themselves as the preservers of the true Islamic faith. The Wahhabites reject all innovations introduced into Islam after the third century of its existence and are very traditional in their practice of Islam. Their desire is to maintain and propagate what they see as the "true" path of Islam. Joshua Project
How can we pray for them?
Brothers, my heart’s desire and prayer to God for them is that they may be saved. (Romans 10:1)
____________________________________________________________________________________________
Here are the previous weeks threads on the UPG of the Week for Reformed
People Group Country Date Posted Beliefs
Arab Qatar 09/14/2020 Islam
Turkmen Turkmenistan 08/31/2020 Islam
Lyuli Uzbekistan 08/24/2020 Islam
Kyrgyz Kyrgyzstan 08/17/2020 Islam*
Yakut Russia 08/10/2020 Animism*
Northern Katang Laos 08/03/2020 Animism
Uyghur Kazakhstan 07/27/2020 Islam
Syrian (Levant Arabs) Syria 07/20/2020 Islam
Teda Chad 07/06/2020 Islam
Kotokoli Togo 06/28/2020 Islam
Hobyot Oman 06/22/2020 Islam
Moor Sri Lanka 06/15/2020 Islam
Shaikh Bangladesh 06/08/2020 Islam
Khalka Mongols Mongolia 06/01/2020 Animism
Comorian France 05/18/2020 Islam
Bedouin Jordan 05/11/2020 Islam
Muslim Thai Thailand 05/04/2020 Islam
Nubian Uganda 04/27/2020 Islam
Kraol Cambodia 04/20/2020 Animism
Tay Vietnam 04/13/2020 Animism
Yoruk Turkey 04/06/2020 Islam
Xiaoliangshn Nosu China 03/30/2020 Animism
Jat (Muslim) Pakistan 03/23/2020 Islam
Beja Bedawi Egypt 03/16/2020 Islam
Tunisian Arabs Tunisia 03/09/2020 Islam
Yemeni Arab Yemen 03/02/2020 Islam
Bosniak Croatia 02/24/2020 Islam
Azerbaijani Georgia 02/17/2020 Islam
Zaza-Dimli Turkey 02/10/2020 Islam
Huichol Mexico 02/03/2020 Animism
Kampuchea Krom Cambodia 01/27/2020 Buddhism
Lao Krang Thailand 01/20/2020 Buddhism
Gilaki Iran 01/13/2020 Islam
Uyghurs China 01/01/2020 Islam
Israeli Jews Israel 12/18/2019 Judaism
Drukpa Bhutan 12/11/2019 Buddhism
Malay Malaysia 12/04/2019 Islam
Lisu (Reached People Group) China 11/27/2019 Christian
Dhobi India 11/20/2019 Hinduism
Burmese Myanmar 11/13/2019 Buddhism
Minyak Tibetans China 11/06/2019 Buddhism
Yazidi Iraq 10/30/2019 Animism*
Turks Turkey 10/23/2019 Islam
Kurds Syria 10/16/2019 Islam
Kalmyks Russia 10/09/2019 Buddhism
Luli Tajikistan 10/02/2019 Islam
Japanese Japan 09/25/2019 Shintoism
Urak Lawoi Thailand 09/18/2019 Animism
Kim Mun Vietnam 09/11/2019 Animism
Tai Lue Laos 09/04/2019 Bhuddism
Sundanese Indonesia 08/28/2019 Islam
Central Atlas Berbers Morocco 08/21/2019 Islam
Fulani Nigeria 08/14/2019 Islam
Sonar India 08/07/2019 Hinduism
Pattani Malay Thailand 08/02/2019 Islam
Thai Thailand 07/26/2019 Buddhism
Baloch Pakistan 07/19/2019 Islam
Alawite Syria 07/12/2019 Islam*
Huasa Cote d'Ivoire 06/28/2019 Islam
Chhetri Nepal 06/21/2019 Hinduism
Beja Sudan 06/14/2019 Islam
Yinou China 06/07/2019 Animism
Kazakh Kazakhstan 05/31/2019 Islam
Hui China 05/24/2019 Islam
Masalit Sudan 05/17/2019 Islam
As always, if you have experience in this country or with this people group, feel free to comment or PM me and I will happily edit it so that we can better pray for these peoples!
Here is a list of definitions in case you wonder what exactly I mean by words like "Unreached"
submitted by partypastor to Reformed [link] [comments]


2020.09.13 17:13 Gryfonides [Spoilers PUBLISHED] Dothraki are no Mongols

From AskHistorians, adopted to finally end the whole discussion on how Dothraki would totally destroy everyone.
(...) Whereas the Mongols adopted armour, siege engines, literacy, taxation, statecraft, etc extremely rapidly, the Dothraki are almost pathological in their refusal to adapt their way of life to those of the people they meet. They conquer no kingdoms but lay waste to them instead, they form no state of their own but roam endlessly from one end of Essos to the other, doing little more than feuding and raiding. And, when presented with an enemy who refuses to be intimidated by them, their pride causes them to abandon good tactics (such as attacking on the flanks) and to literally commit suicide en masse.
Why am I harping on so much about how the Dothraki aren't based on the Mongols? Well, because the Mongols were, while not quite entirely exceptional, nonetheless very nearly the pinnacle of steppe warriors. Their combination of discipline, broadly meritocratic system of leadership and adaptability made them a much more serious threat than previous steppe confederations.
You have to remember, most of the sedentary peoples the Mongols conquered were used to steppe warriors and knew how to fight them. Any kingdom or civilisation on the borders of the steppes had to fight nomads on a regular basis, and some, like the Hungarians, were even descended from them. That's one major reason why the Mongol threat was not treated as seriously as hindsight indicates they should have.
And how did they fight them? Well, a major part of it was indeed to have archers or crossbowmen behind a wall of spearmen. Whether we look at Arrian's Array Against the Alans, the Praecepta militaria of Nikephoros II Phokas, the infantry formations used by the Crusaders against the forces of the Islamic world, the infantry formations of the Islamic world or, indeed, various Chinese armies dating back to at least the early Han dynasty, we find that this combination of troops is one measure taken to defeat horse archers in battle.
However, infantry are not enough, no matter how well equipped. A strong cavalry arm - most often trained in horse archery - is necessary in order to protect the infantry from ambush, to exploit weaknesses in the enemy lines, to counter attack when the opportunity presents itself, to ambush the enemy where possible, to chase the defeated enemy (although not to far). In addition to a lighter arm of horse archers, heavily armoured cavalry which, while not capable of pursuing to any great degree, is necessary to make the most of opportunities where they can charge into the middle of the enemy horse archers - as at Arsuf - and fight them on unequal terms that favour their heavy armour and skill at close quarters combat. It's also necessary in order to prevent the light cavalry from this sort of situation.
With that said, the Mongols nonetheless managed to overcome these measures through a combination of superior generalship and superior discipline. The technological factor (the recurve bow) is largely overrated (...) . Similarly, the theoretical maximum range is grossly over stated, as the actual effective range on horseback is well within the effective range of selfbows and crossbows - somewhere between 50 and 80 yards.

In short, that is why I don't think that Dothraki are any threat to Westeros. (I cut down parts of the post so to shorten it, full text with bibliography in a link.)
submitted by Gryfonides to asoiaf [link] [comments]


2020.09.13 10:57 daLok1nho Is there any source for 'Old Hungarians' being decimated by Mongols or were their numbers small from the beginning?

Hello, I am your northern neighbor, I haven't found any 'ask Hungarians' subreddit so I am writing here because I am curious about the long-lasting effects of certain historical events that had happened in the past and have a large effect to this date, this concerns the population makeup of the Hungarian Kingdom during the Middle Ages.
I came across a source of a referenced claim on wikipedia (the reference seems to be unavailable as of now) that up to a half of the entire Hungarian population was wiped out by a Mongol invasion. First of all, is this claim true or close to the truth? Are there any historical sources on this from Hungarian chronicles?
I remember reading that after the Ottomans were defeated, that resettling of Germans and Slavs started to take place in the Kingdom of Hungary, was this also a thing after the Mongol invasion?
This would, hypothetically at least, explain the de facto completely Indo-European genetic makeup of nowadays Hungary, right? I do understand that indo-european peoples could've been already a part of the Hungarian tribes that came into the Pannonian basin, but surely they weren't so overwhelmingly European from the start.
I am not making any evil assumptions, no nationalism nor hostility is invoked/involved nor am I pulling out any Slota-level BS, I am genuinely curious whether you have any direct sources for these claims that I've read, alternatively you could address my 'hypothesis' regarding the genetic makeup.
Thanks a lot for any objective answers!
submitted by daLok1nho to hungary [link] [comments]


2020.09.12 01:37 Aeradom_Draconis What's the Best Place to Start the Mongol Horde? (Both Starts)

Looking to start up a new game and we haven't quite nailed down the starting date but I do know what I want to do. I've been listening to a lot of the Hu recently, and I really want to start a Mongol Horde. But I'm not quite sure what to play as. I don't want to jump in and be able to do it immediately, and I'd rather build up my nation from a county, or duchy at most. What are some good picks in both the 867 start and 1066 start?
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2020.09.10 22:11 samarkandtours Tajikistan Cultural Tour - Samarkand Tours Operator – 998998520077

Tajikistan Cultural Tour
Tajikistan cultural tour is an excellent choice for those who wish to learn more about the multi-faceted culture and the history of the Tajik people.
The trip will start in the capital of the country – Dushanbe. There you will experience of the modern life of Tajikistan, and discover many interesting facts about the history of the region after visiting the Museum of Antiquity.
Later you will have a trip to the Hissar fortress (18th century) after which it will proceed towards Istaravshan. This colorful city has a special oriental spirit – take a walk along the local bazaar, pay a visit to religious monuments and experience the ancient town of Mug-tepa.
After that, you will meet the old city Penjikent and its sights dating back to the 5-8th centuries. Lake Iskanderkul, that took its name after Alexander the Great, will conclude your tour. You will spend your night in the village of Sarytag where you will have an opportunity to meet the locals. The return trip to Dushanbe will pass through mountains with another overnight.
In 1929 Tajikistan became a Soviet Socialist Republic separate from Uzbekistan, with Dushanbe remaining its capital. Since the 1930s the city has acquired an increasing number of larger public and official buildings (including a sports stadium, a theater for opera and ballet, government headquarters, and a post office) in architectural styles typical of the Soviet Union at the time, though many have decorative details drawn from local traditions. In the 1950s the city government began to construct increasingly tall residential housing, at first four-story apartment buildings, and, since the 1970s, an ever-increasing number of medium- and high-rise apartment buildings, although some neighborhoods of small mud-brick houses remain.
In the early 8th century, Khujand was captured by the forces of the Umayyad Caliphate, under Qutayba ibn Muslim. The city was incorporated into the Umayyad and subsequent Abbasid Caliphates, and a process of Islamicization began. In the late 9th century, however, it reverted to local rule and was incorporated into the Samanid Empire. It came under the rule of the Kara-Khanid Khanate in 999 and after the division of Kara Khanids in 1042, it was initially part of Eastern Kara Khanids, and then later passed to the western one.
Karakhitans conquered it in 1137, but it passed to Khwarazmshahs in 1211. In 1220, it strongly resisted the Mongol hordes and was thus laid to waste. In the 14th century, the city was part of the Chagatai Khanate until it was incorporated into the Timurid Dynasty' in the late 14th century, under which it flourished greatly. The Shaybanid dynasty of Bukhara next annexed Khojand, until it was taken over by the Kokand Khanate in 1802, however, Bukhara regained it in 1842 until it was lost a few decades later to Russia.
Lake Iskanderkul is a true pearl of the Pamir-Alai and is sometimes called the heart of the Fann Mountains.
On all sides it is surrounded with huge rocky masses, which in some places form impregnable walls.
The highest peak in the area, Mount Kyrk Shaytan, rises to almost four kilometres above sea level. However, the other mountains in the neighbourhood are also higher than 3,000 metres, which means the difference in height between their summits and the lake’s surface exceeds 1 km. The turquoise of the water spectacularly contrasts with the red brown of the rock’s faces.
Lake Iskanderkul is wrapped in legends. According to one of them, Alexander the Great led his troops across the Fann Mountains, and while the army was camping on Iskanderkul’s shores, Bucephalus, the king’s favourite horse, sank in the waters. The name of the lake is also directly associated with the great conqueror, as Iskander was how the people in Central Asia pronounced the name Alexander.
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https://www.google.com/maps/d4/viewer?mid=1_jC7GWMEAdKMBlXVHxs_1cUza7PahqV2&ll=39.42481437929485%2C69.44135470000002&z=8
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2020.09.10 15:59 NightmareP69 Warning, don't use cloud saves atm in CK3. RIP Roman WC run.

I sadly didn't hear about this in time but cloud saves have a higher chance of corrupting your save, primarily during the very late game period where stability and performance starts to tank in CK3, i had several crashes during the last 50 some years of my now dead Roman Empire WC run and the last one i had was the final nail in the coffic as my save got corrupted.
Last pic i managed to snag early 1300s of my run : https://steamcommunity.com/sharedfiles/filedetails/?id=2224868991
Save file that got corrupted in very early 1400s : https://steamuserimages-a.akamaihd.net/ugc/1633073953046697246/F1C5D391EB92BD340238263497D387919869F917/
Glad there is no actual WC achievement otherwise i would've been extra salty, all that was left is to hit end date for the only remaining thing i could earn which was the achievement for hitting 1453 so not the worst loss but still a shame since i have been playing that save religiously for the past several days staying up late often and even eaten all of India and got my dynasty on the Mongol Empire, so be warned, use local saves from now on until a confirmed fix happens, i can't gurantee fully it won't happen with local saves too but from what i heard from others it's far less likely and I'll be switching to local now too from now on.
submitted by NightmareP69 to CrusaderKings [link] [comments]


2020.09.04 21:18 shakakimo CK3 which date/country to play as mongols

Unsure which of the various tribes/khanates through the years to get a fun mongol start, can any form the actual mongol empire ?
submitted by shakakimo to CrusaderKings [link] [comments]


2020.09.04 02:20 InfinityEgg69 Getting a bad feeling...

Its 1250. I haven't seen a new event popup in some time, just the same ones I was getting (1066 start date). I've been elected HRE, and I am invincible. 3 powerful rulers of Europe in a row, no new events. I can't even tell them apart now.
The blobs on the map are grim and primitive. The mongols invade as a feudal empire. In their second war they are defeated by a small group of duchies. I am immediately reminded of playing vanilla CK2, and my heart sinks.
This is so bare-bones. I didn't buy CK3, I bought to opportunity to buy $300 of DLC.
submitted by InfinityEgg69 to CrusaderKings [link] [comments]


2020.09.04 00:37 Bino5150 The Evolution of Swords in the East: From the Jian to the Katana

First and foremost, since the majority of what follows will be talking about Chinese swords, for those that don't know I wish to make a couple of things clear for understanding. In the Chinese language, there is really no differentiation between a knife and a sword. What distinguished the different types of blades is if they are single edged (Dao) or double edged (Jian). Aside from whatever other description may be attached to the name, a chef's knife and saber are both Dao, and a small double edged dagger and a two handed double edged sword are both Jian. In the Chinese language, a European Great Sword would be considered a Jian, and a Katana would be a Dao. However, when I mention Jian and Dao here, I will only be speaking of Chinese swords specifically.
The Jian (Jian in Mandarin; Gim in Cantonese) is a double edged straight sword that has been in use in China for at least the last 2,500 years. It has been documented in Chinese history at least as far back as 7th century BC, during the Spring & Autumn period. One of the oldest known historical Jian that we possess today is the legendary Sword of Goujian, which was discovered in Hubei, China, in 1965. The date of this swords origin is around 510 BC. When it was discovered in an ancient tomb by archeologists, this sword became famous because of the fact that it was still razor sharp and not tarnished, despite the tomb being soaked in underground water for the better part of 2,000 years.
The ancient Chinese were making iron from pig iron in the early 5th century BC during the Zhou Dynasty (1050-256 BC), although the oldest known evidence of bloomery iron in China actually dates back to about 14th century BC with the tribes of the Siwa culture. At this point, I think it is also important to note that during the Warring States period in China (247-221 BC), the quality of the swords of China evolved greatly. During the beginning of the Early Han Dynasty (202 BC-220 AD), the Chinese were producing not only heat treated steel, but it was during the same Early Han Dynasty/Warring States period that they developed the art of differential hardening of the steel. Sometime during the Late Han Dynasty (circa 1st century AD) the smithing techniques of forge welding the lamination of layers of steel and folding to purify the steel and achieve a consistent homogenous carbon content emerged in China.
During the Early Han Dynasty (202 BC-220 AD) the Dao became a very popular weapon among the Calvary, although the Jian was still the sword of choice for the military. Around the time of the Three Kingdoms period (220-280 AD), the single edged Dao had completely replaced the Jian as the preferred choice and standard issue weapon of the military. These Dao were straight single edged blades that resembled the Jian closely, except for being a single edged weapon. At the beginning of the Han Dynasty, bronze weapons were being phased out completely in favor of steel weapons, and this caused the blades to increase in length and decrease in thickness and width, making much stronger and lighter swords. While the Dao was the swords of choice for the military at the time, the Jian was considered "The Gentleman of Weapons" and "The Scholarly Sword". The Jian was often worn as a status symbol by affluent upper-class and those in authority, but was also still the favorite weapon of choice by local militias. It's generally accepted that during the Three Kingdoms period is when China was first introduced to Damascus pattern welded steel and Wootz crucible steel from the Middle East, which used highly refined and advanced methods of smithing, however very similar to what the Chinese were already doing, and used this knowledge to advance their own smithing techniques and increase the quality of their weapons.
Throughout the Tang Dynasty (618-907 AD) and into the Song Dynasty (960-1279 AD) the Jian and Dao went through many different incarnations and the quality of the blades saw another enormous leap, but for the most part the vast majority of "standard swords" remained true to their original designs with the exception of the discontinuation of the Han ringed pommel during the Tang Dynasty, and it's reintroduction in the midst of the Song Dynasty. With the increase in the quality of the weapons, larger two handed swords were becoming more and more common, as well as very hefty single handed weapons. During the early 13th century Mongol invasion during the Yuan Dynasty (1279-1368 AD), the Dao evolved into more curved blades, as were influenced by Turkish Sabers, and were made with more rounded (or sometimes square) disc style hand guards instead of quillions. Very early into the rise of the Ming Dynasty (1368-1664 AD), Chinese bladesmiths were regularly producing twist-core "Damascus" swords and "Wootz" style crucible steel called Bintie.
Because of open trade routes between China and Japan, many Chinese swords as well as the Chinese smithing techniques found their way into Japan. While both straight single edged (Chokuto) and double edged (Tsurugi) swords existed in Japan from its Jokoto era ("ancient swords", up to 900 AD), prior to the 10th century Japanese swordsmiths did not possess the methods of folding steel or differential hardening. In fact, the oldest swords recorded in Japanese written history are two blades that were gifts to the Queen from China during the Chinese Wei Dynasty (386-584 AD). However, as far back as 280 AD, Japan was importing iron swords from China, which greatly influenced the Japanese swords that were later to come. It's also noteworthy that at the time China was exporting iron swords to Japan, China itself had basically phased out bronze and iron swords at home, and had been producing very high quality purified and hardened (and differentially hardened) steel swords for almost a half of a millennia.
It was during the Japanese Koto period ("old swords", 900-1596 AD) that the Tang Dao found its way to Japan, along with the advanced smithing techniques that the Chinese had developed long ago. It was also in this same time period that Mongol invasions of Kublai Khan's army introduced the Mongol and Yuan Daos to Japan. Faced with invaders possessing superior weapons, the Japanese swords evolved out of necessity. It was also during this time that Japanese swords developing a more curved shape instead of the straight blade.
This new era of sword making in Japan gave birth to the Tachi sword towards the end of the Koto period. The Tachi sword preceded the development of the Katana, as the first use of the word "Katana" didn't occur until the Kamakura period (1185-1333 AD). The evolution of the Tachi sword into what would be known as the Katana continued on into the early Muromachi period (1337-1573 AD), and around 1400 AD long swords with the Katana style mei began to appear. It was at this time period in Feudal Japan that the Katana as we know it today came to be, and became the iconic weapon of choice of the Samurai. This ushered in the Shinto age ("new swords", 1596-1624 AD) of Japan, as their swords made an enormous leap in quality from the earlier Koto period.
submitted by Bino5150 to SWORDS [link] [comments]


2020.09.03 07:14 TodaystheDayeee In honor of the 75th anniversary of the end of WW2 (Sep. 2nd 1945), here's the Ares and Wonder Woman transcript to my next video.

"To me you are the most hateful of all gods who hold Olympus. Forever quarrelling is dear to your heart, wars and battles." - Zeus, Iliad, Book 5
Our story begins in Olympus in the time of the old gods but it could be anywhere at anytime. Hera, Queen of Olympus, Goddess of Marriage and Women had a son with her older brother and husband Zeus, the King of the Gods. They brought forth Ares, God of War and personification of the primal carnage of men. Not just war, the brutality of it. He would wage a war against love and unleash death where death need not be.
But Ares was not the only name used to invoke war. Not even the first. It's actually not clear where or when it first manifested. In the long prehistoric infancy of our species large scale conflict was likely not even possible. Contact was probably limited to fights over game as small bands or tribes followed herds, staying close to fresh water and foraging grounds. One of the earliest cemeteries called Jebel Sahaba in the Nile river valley near the border of Sudan and Egypt dates back at least 11,600 years. Of the 61 individuals found, 26 skeletons had arrowhead fragments near them or in some cases still embedded in them, causing speculation of a massacre. There was also evidence of healed injuries indicating persistent raids.
In 2005, excavation work began in Hamoukar, a large archaeological dig near the Iraqi and Turkish borders. The settlement there dates back to the 5th millennium BCE, but it was destroyed about 3500 BCE. Slings and thousands of clay bullets have been found among the ruins, possibly evidence of the earliest urban warfare discovered so far.
Then finally, writing began in Egypt and soon after the Palette of Narmer is inscribed. It tells the story of the 1st pharaoh of a unified Egypt vanquishing his rivals. This marks the beginning of the first dynasty about 3100 BCE in the mythical, as yet undiscovered capital city of Thinis which worshiped the Egyptian God of war, Anhur, the slayer of enemies.
The rest, as they say, is history and there is a lot of it.
The causes of war are simple. Simple needs. Simple desires. Desperation and greed. All seven deadly sins. All four horseman. Some call it the devil, temptation and evil. Bad thoughts, bad words, bad deeds.
And the story begins again around 850 years before the common era. A man of myth and his followers establish a city of mostly male bandits. Shortly after they throw a festival and announce it to the neighboring cities as a celebration. During the festival, the myth tells of 30 young women, all but 1 a virgin, who were abducted by their hosts and later implored to marry their abductors. The mythical man is known as Romulus and the newly founded city was Rome.
The scene becomes popular among artists and sculptors and is known as The Rape of the Sabine Women. The resulting hostility with the surrounding tribes erupted into the invasion of Rome which they fought back. Rome was quickly becoming a powerful force and defeated 3 neighboring tribes. It was soon on the offensive against King Titus Tatius of the Sabines, fighting against the fathers of their abducted wives. Intervention finally came, according to Roman historian Livy when the women,
"from the outrage on whom the war originated, with hair disheveled and garments rent, the timidity of their sex being overcome by such dreadful scenes, had the courage to throw themselves amid the flying weapons, and making a rush across, to part the incensed armies, and assuage their fury; imploring their fathers on the one side, their husbands on the other, "that as fathers-in-law and sons-in-law they would not contaminate each other with impious blood, nor stain their offspring with parricide, the one their grandchildren, the other their children. If you are dissatisfied with the affinity between you, if with our marriages, turn your resentment against us; we are the cause of war, we of wounds and of bloodshed to our husbands and parents. It were better that we perish than live widowed or fatherless without one or [the] other of you."
- THE HISTORY OF ROME. BY TITUS LIVIUS, or "Livy"
A treaty was struck, and the Sabines united with the Romans as one nation. Titus Tatius ruled with Romulus until his death five years later and as we all know, Rome was just getting started. Like the Spartans and Egyptians before them, the Romans had an affinity with their war God, this time known as Mars.
There are many other war gods and goddesses as well such as Agasaya, Agrona, Agurzil, Ah Chuy Kak, Ah Cun Can, Ah Hulneb, Ahulane, Alala, Alaisiagae, Al-Qaum, Alke, Amphillogiai, Anahita, Anann, Anath, Andarta, Andraste, Androktasiai, Anhur, Ankt, Anouke, Apedemak, Aray, Ares, Ashtart, Ashur and Athena. And that ladies and gentlemen, is just the A's.
The longest conflict in history is the Reconquista on the Iberian Peninsula between the Christians in what is now Spain and the conquering Muslims who invaded in the year 711. It lasted 781 years, finally ending with the 10 year long Granada War. Christian forces made a massive offensive push, recruiting farmers to swell their ranks, destroying enemy crops and pushing the Muslims towards the sea. It ended on Jan. 2nd, 1492 with the surrender of Islamic rule. 7 other wars or conflicts lasted longer than 500 years. Another 106 wars lasted longer than 50 years. But the God of war is insatiable and humanity was about to manifest the most destructive incarnation the world had yet seen.
In 1162, in a desolate place where food and luxury was scarce, a baby was born in exile from a disgraced family. He would go on to become a warrior and unite the Mongol tribes as Genghis Khan. His conquest was fueled by fear. He readily employed brutal tactics like spreading disease by catapulting the dead over walls. So many people died that weather patterns were disturbed and forest grew back on previously populated land. The Mongol horde trampled empires, handing down ultimatums of death or alliance. Fear spread like a plague, and the horde rode in behind it destroying some to tame the rest. Khan would promise protection and relative normalcy in exchange for complete surrender and regular tributes. Those made subordinate became sources of income, fueling the Khan’s engine of war. For a brief moment in time, Genghis Khan and the Khan's that followed carved out the largest contiguous empire on Earth.
Perhaps the deadliest confrontation in history took place under Hulagu Khan during the Siege of Baghdad in 1258, which lasted only 13 days. At the time, Baghdad was the capital of the Islamic Abbasid Caliphate. Their leader, Al-Musta'sim, was either overconfident or incompetent or both. When the Mongols had overcome the city's defenses they executed Al-Musta'sim and massacred the people leaving it greatly depopulated. Contemporary accounts state Mongol soldiers looted and destroyed mosques, palaces, libraries, and hospitals. The Grand Library of Baghdad, called the House of Wisdom, containing countless historical documents and books on medicine to astronomy, was destroyed. Priceless books torn apart, their leather covers used as sandals, their contents dumped in the river with the dead. Its said the Tigris ran red from the blood of philosophers and scientists and then turned black from the ink of their wisdom. The siege is considered to mark the end of the Islamic Golden Age.
This level of carnage would not be unleashed again in so short a time until the 20th century during WW1 and again just 1 generation later in WW2. The Siege of Leningrad alone, which lasted from 1941 to 1944, would leave 1 million to 5.5 million dead. Then the Battle of Stalingrad began in August 1942. It lasted into the winter and added again to list of bloodiest battles in the history of warfare. Air raids dropped bombs on civilians as fighting devolved into close-quarter, house-to-house combat. Both sides poured reinforcements into the city and by the end, as many as 2 million were dead. After five months, one week and three days of fighting the Axis forces had exhausted their ammunition and food, finally forced to surrender in February 1943. It was a turning point in the war that began pushing the Nazi's back to Berlin.
In the middle of this hell on Earth, in July 1942, Wonder Woman issue #1 - The Origin of Wonder Woman is released by DC Comics. In it, for some reason, she's carrying a parchment in her outfit which tells the history of the Amazons. Of course, she loses it and obviously someone at the Smithsonian gets it and translates it so we all get to learn what's happening now.
The story returns us to Olympus, Aphrodite is arguing with Ares over who will rule the world - men and violence and hate and war or women with love. Their argument spills over onto Earth. Women throughout the world are enslaved by Ares. Aphrodite turns the tables with a magic girdle she gives to the Amazons. The girdle is eventually stolen by Hercules who enslaves them. Aphrodite intervenes again, granting the Amazons the power to break the chains and remain free for as long as they refuse to submit to men. Their strength lie in the bracelets they wear as reminders of the chains that enslaved them. Away from the influence of men, they create a utopian civilization called Paradise Island.
But back in the real world on a different island in the Pacific theater of WW2, Ares was about to transform the meaning of war and place humanity's very existence on a knife's edge.
bellum omnium contra omnes (Latin phrase meaning "the war of all against all")
On July 16th 1945, the US detonated the first atomic bomb in New Mexico as part of a test. 9 days later the decision to drop one on Japan was made and Allied forces issued the Potsdam Declaration on July 26th which handed down an ultimatum of complete surrender or "the inevitable and complete destruction of the Japanese armed forces and just as inevitably the utter devastation of the Japanese homeland". The bomb wasn't mentioned and it ultimatum was rejected.
On August 2nd, Truman and other high profile US officials boarded the USS Augusta, headed back home across the Atlantic. A group gathered in Secretary of State James Byrnes’s cabin the first night at sea to watch a movie. It was called Wonder Man. A nightclub owner is murdered by gangsters but comes back as a ghost to haunt his killers. Truman stayed in his cabin, perhaps thinking about the explosion that was coming and the weight of his choices. He had written in his diary the day of the decision that, "the target will be a purely military one". It's hard to imagine he didn't know better.
About 3 days later, on the other side of the world, Tsutomu Yamaguchi was going to work at Mitsubishi Heavy Industries for what was supposed to be his last day in the city. It was 8:15 AM, on August 6th, 1945 in Hiroshima, Japan and an estimated 70,000 people were about to die. Yamaguchi heard a plane overhead, he looked up and saw The Enola Gay B-29 bomber and he saw the object drop and the parachute attached to it. What dropped was an atomic bomb equivalent to 18,000 tons of TNT. It was more powerful than the previous largest bomb ever used in warfare by more than 1,500 times.
Yamaguchi described the blast like “the lightning of a huge magnesium flare.” He had barely been able to dive into a ditch before the boom ruptured his eardrums and the shock wave sucked him into the air and tossed him into a nearby potato patch. His face and forearms were badly burned and he thought he might of fainted for awhile but he was alive. He described everything like the start of an old film before the picture begins, "when the blank frames are just flashing up without any sound." The morning sun was blotted out by dust and debris and falling ash. A mushroom cloud of fire was rising over Hiroshima. He was less than two miles from ground zero.
A mile and a half away, half a mile from ground zero, Shigeyoshi Morimoto was luckier than 95% of the others within the same blast radius. The master kite maker was part of a secret military study to use kites against American planes. Suddenly he found himself under the rubble of his cousins home where he was visiting but Morimoto, his cousin, and his cousin's son all survived.
He said in an interview by Robert Trumbull in 1956 that it was like a lightning flash, then "the house collapsed and we were pinned beneath the fallen ceiling and roof." When they dug themselves out they couldn't believe level of destruction. Every building was flattened within a mile of the explosion, and fire would soon destroy every building within a 4.5 square mile radius. Within weeks, another 70,000 would die in the aftermath.
Sixteen hours after the explosion, a video was released of President Harry Truman revealing the existence of the atomic bomb to the world for the first time. “It is a harnessing of the basic power of the universe,” he said. “The force from which the sun draws its power has been loosed against those who brought war to the Far East.”
Truman was actually still aboard the USS Augusta in the Atlantic ocean. He was having lunch when a navy captain delivered the message. Truman turned to his Secretary of State James Byrnes and shouted, “It’s time for us to get on home!” He then addressed the sailors in the mess-hall, calling for attention by banging silverware against a glass. The sailors went quiet and Truman made his announcement to an explosion of applause. Morale was soaring all over the Augusta. A sailor's quote summed it up best saying, “I guess I’ll go home sooner now.”
Yamaguchi was thinking about home too. In a daze, he found a couple coworkers who also survived. After taking shelter for a night, the three began making their way toward the somehow still operational train. They trekked through a desolated city of smoldering fires, crumbled buildings and the charred and melted corpses of the dead. Yamaguchi was forced to swim through floating bodies at a river crossing because the bridges were twisted wreckage. All to reach the station, where he boarded a train full of other burned and bewildered passengers.
Morimoto had gone back to the hotel he was staying at for work. It was badly damaged but still standing and three of his colleagues were alive. They got permission to leave the city on August 8th. The four men along with Yamaguchi were trying to get back home, to Nagasaki.
At least three trains made the 190 mile trip from Hiroshima to Nagasaki and arrived there by August 9th, the day that city would be bombed. 165 survivors from Hiroshima are thought to have traveled to Nagasaki and lived through the 2nd explosion as well. People who experienced both attacks are called “nijyuu hibakusha,” or “twice-bombed person.”
Yamaguchi reported for work at Mitsubishi’s Nagasaki office and at about 11 a.m. he was giving a full report on Hiroshima. He recounted what he could, the blinding light, the deafening boom, the devastation—but his superior didn't believe it, didn't believe a single bomb could destroy an entire city. Suddenly, another white flash exploded outside. Yamaguchi dropped just seconds before office windows were shattered by the shock wave and debris blew through the room. In his panic, he thought it had followed him but he had just survived a 2nd atomic bombing in 3 days.
He ran out of the wrecked building and past the ravaged city to get home to his wife and son. When he got there part of his house was a pile of rubble but they were alive and barely hurt. His wife had left to buy burn ointment for him, and she and the baby were near a tunnel when the bomb dropped. If Yamaguchi hadn't been burned in Hiroshima, his family might have been killed in Nagasaki.
Morimoto, the kite maker, had just finished describing the atomic bomb to his wife when their house was suddenly flooded with the same blinding flash. He was shouting as he shoved his wife and son into their air-raid shelter and pulled the heavy door shut behind him as their home was destroyed. Morimoto and his family were also uninjured.
But many others were not lucky. Roughly 200,000 people died after four months, about half on the first day, from the effects of the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. It remains the only nuclear bombing used in warfare and although Hiroshima had a sizable military garrison, most of the dead were civilians. After the immediate aftermath, people continued to die in the thousands for months from burns, radiation sickness, and injuries, made even worse by illness and malnutrition. Japan surrendered to the Allies on August 15th, six days after Nagasaki and the Soviet Union had also declared war on them. Japanese government officials signed documents on September 2, effectively ending the war and beginning occupation.
It is generally thought the casualties from the bombings is at or near the low estimates for casualties had the war continued on the ground. It was feared the number of dead could reach a million or more if the Allies invaded the Japanese homeland. Americans were also war weary, the massive operations were expensive, and military strategists were worried about the Soviet Union expanding its influence in the East. However, the debate over the ethical and legal justification for the bombings in still debated today.
But it didn't matter then. The war was over and America was celebrating. Humanity began to rebuild but there was little time to reflect. The full implications of what had happened were still coming into focus. The Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, William Leahy once decried the use of atomic weapons as "an ethical standard common to the barbarians of the Dark Ages", but in 1947 he reported a military requirement for 400 atomic bombs . The Soviet Union detonated an atomic test in September 1949. Oppenheimer, concerned about the devastation that future nuclear war could bring, was stripped of his job and commission. Despite his opposition, the U.S. had developed and tested a Hydrogen bomb by 1952. Ordinary fission bombs like the ones dropped in Japan would henceforth be regarded as small tactical nuclear weapons, a thousand times weaker than the new versions. The US had 23,317 nuclear weapons and the Soviet Union had 40,159 by 1986. More than 90% of the world's remaining 13,865 nuclear weapons were owned by Russia and the United States at the start of 2019. Over 2,000 nuclear tests have been conducted in over a dozen locations around the world by 8 different countries. 9 countries have nuclear weapons.
A team of researchers studied 1,024 species of mammals, and found the rate of lethal violence between Homo sapiens is 7 times higher than the average among all mammals. A different study found that although there are 7.6 billion humans we make up just 0.01% of all living things. In other words, humans are statistically insignificant, not only in the universe but on Earth as well and yet since the dawn of civilization, humanity has caused the loss of 83% of all wild mammals and half of plants. And now our seeming dominance has put us on a path quite possibly to our own destruction. Unwittingly in some cases, proudly in others and cynically in some.
When Yamaguchi's son died from cancer at 59 in 2005, he went public with his story. After remaining silent since his 1950's interview, he began speaking out against nuclear war. Of the estimated 165 people who experienced both attacks and lived, he became the first and only survivor to be officially recognized by the Japanese government as “nijyuu hibakusha,” the “twice-bombed person.” A year later in 2010, he died at the age of 93. He said he got through the many years after the bombings with poetry.
It may seem as if the God of war is at his most powerful, feeding constantly on the chaos in the world and now humans have amassed the potential for total destruction. In the myths and the comics, Ares had done his best throughout the years to destroy the Amazons, sending Hercules against them and sacking their island but he had another plot for all humanity. To spark a war between the United States and Russia, provoking World War III. His ambitions were only thwarted when he was finally forced to face the truth that without the chaos of men he would cease to exist, having no one to worship him.
However, there would be survivors in this nightmare, like the Ginkgo biloba. A ginkgo tree survived in Hiroshima less than a mile from ground zero. It's nicknamed the Tree of Life and it happens to be the oldest species of tree on earth, dating back 270 million years. It also smells like vomit, helping it to survive thousands of generations of grazing animals. Along with the Ginkgo tree, other survivors would probably include rats, cockroaches, ants, scorpions, flies, wasps, worms, bacteria like E. coli, amoebas and the seemingly indestructible tardigrade. It wouldn't be the most pleasant world, but it would still be alive.
And the story begins again, one more time. There was once a utopia. At least that's what outsiders had come to think. It made sense from far away. It had been mostly forgotten, cut off from the world and for a long time no one questioned this supposed utopia. It had achieved an almost mythic, paradise lost status until finally an explorer came to stay there for awhile. At first it seemed the view from the outside was correct. But one day their leader died leaving a power vacuum and a tyrant emerged to fill it. Not all were willing to follow. A group of dissenters separated, forming a smaller group but this did not bring peace. A member of the new group was ambushed one day without warning, beaten badly and was never seen again. Over the next four years the smaller group was picked off 1 by 1 and systematically destroyed. The victors ate the flesh and drank the blood of their victims. They celebrated over the dead with hoots and screams. The explorer was horrified. There was no mercy. But it wasn't men that did these things, not this time. These were the events observed in the jungles of Gombe Stream National Park in Tanzania from 1974 to 1978 during the Gombe Chimpanzee War. The explorer was Jane Goodall. By the end, 10 were dead or missing and only 3 females remained. They were beaten and kidnapped and in that way the two groups became 1 again.
Goodall discovered the systematic hunting strategies and aggressive nature of chimpanzees, exposing their cannibalism and taste for smaller primates. She turned conventional wisdom upside down and found it difficult to come to terms with what she saw herself. But she also observed peaceful and affectionate behaviors, intelligence, emotions, social bonds and forced man to redefine itself, "or accept chimpanzees as human".
In 2019, there were at least 29 conflicts or wars where more than 100 people lost their lives including 17 minor conflicts, 9 wars and 4 major wars in Afghanistan, Yemen, Syria and the Mexican drug war. But despite the headlines. Despite the violence. Despite the tragedy and chaos and the potential destructive power Ares or Anhur or Mars could unleash on humanity at any minute. Despite how things might feel right now. Overall, things are getting better and can get better.
Because something else happened in the 20th century. It was said that a soul of an unborn daughter held back from creation when the first woman was murdered by a man, was put inside a baby girl made out of clay from paradise island. The baby girl was given life by the Greek Pantheon of Goddesses and named Diana. She grew up among a legion of sisters and mothers and became the champion of the Amazons and emissary to the world of men. They would call her Wonder Woman.
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2020.08.31 19:26 partypastor Unreached People Group of the Week - Turkmen of Turkmenistan

I realized that I have never done any people group from Turkmenistan so here is the largest people group in Turkmenistan, the Turkmen people
How Unreached Are They?
The Turkmen are only 0.05% Christian. That means out of the 4,577,000 people, there are roughly only 2280 believers. On a different scale, that means for every 2,000 unbelievers there is only one single believer. Can you just imagine being that alone in such a massive population?
There is a completed bible in their language!
What are they like?
Typical qualification that all people groups can't be summed up in small paragraphs and this is an over generalization.
For centuries the Turkmen lived as nomadic herdsmen. Their society was characterized by a distinct economic division between the cattlemen and farmers. This division was present in almost every tribe, settlement, and family. However, seventy years of Soviet rule has virtually eliminated their nomadic life-style. The socialization of farmland has changed their traditional settlement patterns, and movement into the cities has naturally weakened their customs and traditions.
Tribal loyalties continue to have a strong influence over the people. The largest descent group is the tribe, then the clan, then the family. Members of a tribe are bound by a strong sense of family loyalty. Tribal loyalty is reinforced by the fact that the Turkmen will only marry within their tribes. Arranged marriages are common, and families often intermarry to preserve wealth. Although there have been political and economic changes through the years, less changes have occurred in the areas of family life and religion.
The Turkmen are especially known for their brisk trade in the bazaars, where many samples of their handicrafts can be found. Some of these include metal and wooden household utensils, tools, and furniture. Many have also supplemented their income by producing intricately designed carpets. Oil and gas production are the major sources of wealth.
Turkmen tend to be physically strong and easily able to endure the harshness of the environment. They are characterized by their hospitality, sincerity, and trustworthiness; however, they are also known as being hot-headed and revengeful.
Men usually wear baggy trousers, coarse shirts, boots, and wool hats. Women love wearing jewelry, especially anklet and bracelets. They cover their heads with cloth, like turbans that are also adorned with jewelry. Joshua Project
Turkmen literature comprises oral compositions and written texts in old Oghuz Turkic and Turkmen languages. Turkmens have joint claims to a great number of literary works written in Old Oghuz Turkic and Persian (by Seljuks in 11-12th centuries) languages with other people of the Oghuz Turkic origin, mainly of Azerbaijan and Turkey. This works include, but are not limited to the Book of Dede Korkut, Gorogly and others. The medieval Turkmen literature was heavily influenced by Arabic and Persian, and used mostly Arabic alphabet.
There is general consensus, however, that distinctively Turkmen literature originated in 18th century with the poetry of Magtymguly Pyragy, who is considered the father of the Turkmen literature. Other prominent Turkmen poets of that era are Döwletmämmet Azady (Magtymguly's father), Nurmuhammet Andalyp, Abdylla Şabende, Şeýdaýy, Mahmyt Gaýyby and Gurbanaly Magrupy.
Characteristics of traditional Turkmen cuisine are rooted in the largely nomadic nature of day-to-day life prior to the Soviet period coupled with a long local tradition, dating back millennia before the arrival of the Turkmen in the region, of white wheat production. Baked goods, especially flat bread (Turkmen: çörek) typically baked in a tandoor, make up a large proportion of the daily diet, along with cracked wheat porridge (Turkmen: ýarma), wheat puffs (Turkmen: pişme), and dumplings (Turkmen: börek). Since sheep-, goat-, and camel husbandry are traditional mainstays of nomadic Turkmen, mutton, goat meat, and camel meat were most commonly eaten, variously ground and stuffed in dumplings, boiled in soup, or grilled on spits in chunks (Turkmen: şaşlyk) or as fingers of ground, spiced meat (Turkmen: kebap). Rice for plov was reserved for festive occasions. Due to lack of refrigeration in nomad camps, dairy products from sheep-, goat-, and camel milk were fermented to keep them from spoiling quickly. Fish consumption was largely limited to tribes inhabiting the Caspian Sea shoreline. Fruits and vegetables were scarce, and in nomad camps limited mainly to carrots, squash, pumpkin, and onions. Inhabitants of oases enjoyed more varied diets, with access to pomegranate, fig, and stone fruit orchards; vineyards; and of course melons. Areas with cotton production could use cottonseed oil and sheep herders used fat from the fat-tailed sheep. The major traditional imported product was tea. Wikipedia
History Lesson
Türkmens were definitely mentioned near the end of the 10th century A.D in Islamic literature by the Arab geographer al-Muqaddasi in Ahsan Al-Taqasim Fi Ma'rifat Al-Aqalim. In his work, which was completed in 987 A.D, al-Muqaddasi writes about Turkmens twice while depicting the region as the frontier of the Muslim possessions in Central Asia.
Earlier references to Türkmen might be trwkkmˀn (if not trkwmˀn "translator"), mentioned in an 8th century Sogdian letter and 特拘夢 Tejumeng, another name of Sogdia, besides Suyi 粟弋 and Sute 粟特, according to Chinese encylopedia Tongdian. However, even if 特拘夢 might have transcribed Türkmen, these "Türkmens" might be Karluks instead of modern Türkmens' Oghuz-speaking ancestors.
Towards the end of the 11th, in Divânü Lügat'it-Türk (Compendium of the Turkic Dialects), Mahmud Kashgari uses “Türkmen” synonymously with “Oğuz”. He describes Oghuz as a Turkic tribe and says that Oghuz and Karluks were both known as Turkmens.
The modern Turkmen people descend from the Oghuz Turks of Transoxiana, the western portion of Turkestan, a region that largely corresponds to much of Central Asia as far east as Xinjiang. Famous historian and ruler of Khorezm of the XVII century Abu al-Ghazi Bahadur links the origin of all Turkmens to 24 Oghuz tribes in his literary work "Genealogy of the Turkmens".
In the 7th century AD, Oghuz tribes had moved westward from the Altay mountains through the Siberian steppes, and settled in this region. They also penetrated as far west as the Volga basin and the Balkans. These early Turkmens are believed to have mixed with native Sogdian peoples and lived as pastoral nomads until being conquered by the Russians in the 19th century.
Migration of the Turkmen tribes from the territory of Turkmenistan and the rest of Central Asia in the south-west direction began mainly from the 11th century and continued until the 18th century. These Turkmen tribes played a significant role in the ethnic formation of such peoples as Turks, Turkmens of Iraq and Syria, as well as the Turkic population of Iran and Azerbaijan. To preserve their independence, those tribes that remained in Turkmenistan were united in military alliances, although remnants of tribal relations remained until the 20th century. Their traditional occupations were farming, cattle breeding, and various crafts. Ancient samples of applied art (primarily carpets and jewelry) indicate a high level of folk art culture. Wikipedia
And then:
The majority of Turkmen live in Turkmenistan, which is located in south Central Asia along the Caspian Sea. Many others live in the surrounding Asian nations of Kazakhstan, Iran, Afghanistan, and Uzbekistan. Their culture has been strongly influenced in the past by both the Turkic conquerors, who imposed their language on them, and the Arabs, who forced them to convert to Islam. Long ago, they developed a strong ethnic identity as "children of the desert" because they would plunder rich caravans of Persian traders.
In the 17th century, the Turkmen, or Trukhmens as they were called in Russia, migrated into the Caucasus. Turkmen use Russian as their literary language. Joshua Project
What do they believe?
The Turkmen people are largely Muslim. Joshua Project gives us this insight into their religious history
Nestorian Christians entered Turkmenistan in the fourth century A.D.; by the beginning of the fourteenth century, though, any lingering trace of Christianity had been totally replaced by Islam. This transition gradually came to influence the political, civil, and economic lives of the people.
In 1928, the Soviet authorities launched an anti-religious campaign aimed at the complete destruction of Islam among the Turkmen. The campaign was the harshest and most violent of all anti-Islamic attacks in Central Asia. Today, despite the outward conformity to Islam, mysticism and other past religious traditions are still prevalent.
How can we pray for them?
Brothers, my heart’s desire and prayer to God for them is that they may be saved. (Romans 10:1)
____________________________________________________________________________________________
Here are the previous weeks threads on the UPG of the Week for Reformed
People Group Country Date Posted Beliefs
Turkmen Turkmenistan 08/31/2020 Islam
Lyuli Uzbekistan 08/24/2020 Islam
Kyrgyz Kyrgyzstan 08/17/2020 Islam*
Yakut Russia 08/10/2020 Animism*
Northern Katang Laos 08/03/2020 Animism
Uyghur Kazakhstan 07/27/2020 Islam
Syrian (Levant Arabs) Syria 07/20/2020 Islam
Teda Chad 07/06/2020 Islam
Kotokoli Togo 06/28/2020 Islam
Hobyot Oman 06/22/2020 Islam
Moor Sri Lanka 06/15/2020 Islam
Shaikh Bangladesh 06/08/2020 Islam
Khalka Mongols Mongolia 06/01/2020 Animism
Comorian France 05/18/2020 Islam
Bedouin Jordan 05/11/2020 Islam
Muslim Thai Thailand 05/04/2020 Islam
Nubian Uganda 04/27/2020 Islam
Kraol Cambodia 04/20/2020 Animism
Tay Vietnam 04/13/2020 Animism
Yoruk Turkey 04/06/2020 Islam
Xiaoliangshn Nosu China 03/30/2020 Animism
Jat (Muslim) Pakistan 03/23/2020 Islam
Beja Bedawi Egypt 03/16/2020 Islam
Tunisian Arabs Tunisia 03/09/2020 Islam
Yemeni Arab Yemen 03/02/2020 Islam
Bosniak Croatia 02/24/2020 Islam
Azerbaijani Georgia 02/17/2020 Islam
Zaza-Dimli Turkey 02/10/2020 Islam
Huichol Mexico 02/03/2020 Animism
Kampuchea Krom Cambodia 01/27/2020 Buddhism
Lao Krang Thailand 01/20/2020 Buddhism
Gilaki Iran 01/13/2020 Islam
Uyghurs China 01/01/2020 Islam
Israeli Jews Israel 12/18/2019 Judaism
Drukpa Bhutan 12/11/2019 Buddhism
Malay Malaysia 12/04/2019 Islam
Lisu (Reached People Group) China 11/27/2019 Christian
Dhobi India 11/20/2019 Hinduism
Burmese Myanmar 11/13/2019 Buddhism
Minyak Tibetans China 11/06/2019 Buddhism
Yazidi Iraq 10/30/2019 Animism*
Turks Turkey 10/23/2019 Islam
Kurds Syria 10/16/2019 Islam
Kalmyks Russia 10/09/2019 Buddhism
Luli Tajikistan 10/02/2019 Islam
Japanese Japan 09/25/2019 Shintoism
Urak Lawoi Thailand 09/18/2019 Animism
Kim Mun Vietnam 09/11/2019 Animism
Tai Lue Laos 09/04/2019 Bhuddism
Sundanese Indonesia 08/28/2019 Islam
Central Atlas Berbers Morocco 08/21/2019 Islam
Fulani Nigeria 08/14/2019 Islam
Sonar India 08/07/2019 Hinduism
Pattani Malay Thailand 08/02/2019 Islam
Thai Thailand 07/26/2019 Buddhism
Baloch Pakistan 07/19/2019 Islam
Alawite Syria 07/12/2019 Islam*
Huasa Cote d'Ivoire 06/28/2019 Islam
Chhetri Nepal 06/21/2019 Hinduism
Beja Sudan 06/14/2019 Islam
Yinou China 06/07/2019 Animism
Kazakh Kazakhstan 05/31/2019 Islam
Hui China 05/24/2019 Islam
Masalit Sudan 05/17/2019 Islam
As always, if you have experience in this country or with this people group, feel free to comment or PM me and I will happily edit it so that we can better pray for these peoples!
Here is a list of definitions in case you wonder what exactly I mean by words like "Unreached"
submitted by partypastor to Reformed [link] [comments]


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2020.08.28 00:09 Dutchformula Keeping track of dates b.c.

Hello friends,
Since the birth of Jesus Christ we refer to dates using His birth year. However, If someone wrote something at lets say 128 b.c. what system did they have to date it and to know which year it was? And how was this system subsequently ‘translated’ to b.c. time? I can imagine people from the east for example Mongols had a different system than the Romans. How was this all cut into one, one-fits-all system?
Kind regards,
submitted by Dutchformula to AskHistorians [link] [comments]


2020.08.27 14:49 vesrynk45 Bad History of India, the Mughals, and especially the early modern Indian economy in Steven Johnson's *Enemy of all Mankind* (2020)

After hearing an entertaining interview on the podcast Time to Eat the Dogs with Steven Johnson, concerning his new book Enemy of all Mankind, I naively anticipated a light and narrative-focused book which would nonetheless offer some interesting and decently researched contextualization of the encounter between English pirate Henry Every and a Mughal treasure ship in 1695. I did not expect Johnson’s engagement with the Indian aspects of the story to involve deep primary source reading, but upon starting the book I found that, unfortunately, his engagements with Mughal and wider Indian history are not only shallow but deeply flawed, often in basic factual terms.
 
For one, he refers to the Mughal dynasty as “five-centur[ies]-old” (p. 113) at the time of Every’s piratical career, a rather baffling claim I can only ascribe to possible conflation with the Ghurids. Earlier he also conflates the Ghurids with the Delhi Sultanate, which he claims Muhammad Ghuri established (p. 36). The Delhi sultanate in fact emerged as a successor to the Ghurids following both the death of Muhammad Ghuri in 1206 and a protracted contest between his slave-commanders in different regions of India. The Mughal Empire was established by Babur, who conquered a stretch of North India in 1526; if one takes up the idealized Mughal claim to Timurid dynastic continuity, one could place the dynasty’s origins in the late fourteenth century, but as far as I know this is not an approach taken in any literature. As a discrete ruling dynasty, the Mughals emerged in the sixteenth century. Even the strained Timurid timeline is nowhere close to Johnson’s five hundred years.
 
He also appears to think of the word ‘Mughal’ as an imperial title interchangeable with ‘king’ or ‘emperor,’ as in this line: “declare yourself emperoking/mughal” (p. 51). My thinking is that this arose from his use of European sources which refer to the Mughal emperors as ‘Grand (or Great) Mughals’, a formulation he repeats often; he also refers only to rulers as Mughals. Mughal is not at all an imperial title, but an ethnic or cultural identifier meaning ‘Mongol’ in Persian. On the theme of ethno-cultural confusions, Johnson refers to Mahmud of Ghazni as “Afghani” (p. 36). Firstly, Mahmud was of Turkic origin. Secondly, the conventional term for someone of Afghan origin is ‘Afghan’ rather than ‘Afghani’. Another odd moment worth mentioning is his description of the Mughal state as a “theocracy” (p. 8).
 
Beyond these basic factual errors, there are some serious issues with his representation of the role of Islam in Indian history, especially his assertion that “some” (who exactly is not made clear) call it “the most devastating genocide in world history” (p. 36): his only attempt to back up this statement is a quotation from Fernand Braudel’s A History of Civilizations (1988) which asserts that Muslim dynasties could only rule India using “systemic terror”. Johnson breezily elides the earliest caliphate with the Ghaznavids and Ghurids as representatives of Islam in general (pp. 35-36) and seems to think that ‘India’ remained totally separate from ‘Islam’ throughout history: he states that commerce on the Indian Ocean became dominated by Muslims and not Indians well into the second millennium (p. 34), apparently unable to consider that those traders could have been both. He also parrots accounts of the reigns of Mahmud of Ghazni and Aurangzeb focusing on supposed Islamic iconoclastic zeal (pp. 36, 64-67), which are by now well criticized and qualified even in more accessible works like Richard Eaton’s India in the Persianate Age (2020). All these points deserve long write-ups, but I will focus on a rather more niche aspect of Johnson’s treatment of Indian history which aggravated me, since I have been reading up on it for research: the issue of specie and the economy.
 
Johnson rightly mentions that India took in a huge amount of precious metals in the early modern period, with some scholars estimating around twenty percent of the world’s output from 1600-1800. However he asserts that these precious metals’ economic value was nullified in India as they were melted down to make “bracelets, brocades and other ostentatious heirlooms.” (p. 50). This phrase is a direct quotation of John Keay, a popular historian and journalist whose book on the East India Company has, according to one review, “more in common with the chronicles of Harry Flashman than with the standard academic works on the East India Company” (Ó Gráda, p. 236). In Johnson’s formulation, Indian and specifically Mughal conceptions of wealth as a measure of precious ornaments would run up against the modern economic ideas of the East India Company, a joint-stock corporation: little did the opulent court of the sultans know that the latter would transform the politics and economics of the whole world. While there is something to the idea of the Company’s novelty in terms of structure and mercantilist economic ideology in the Indian context, to support it with the claim that India simply absorbed and sat on specie in the form of baubles flies in the face of years of research on early modern Indian economic history. The immense intake of precious metals created a large moneyed economy. States minted and were engaged in the exchange and regulation of a huge number of coins; large and sophisticated financial firms centered around families operated networks of credit, trade and investment as far afield as the Russian steppe; metal currency can even be seen in the religious rites of common people.
 
Perhaps crucial to Johnson’s apparent ignorance of the immensely important role of specie in the huge and active economy of early modern India is his focus on the Indian Ocean, and his all-too-easy use of one apparent Hindu prohibition of seafaring to conclude that Hindus simply did not trade and that India was totally passive in terms of trade and wider economic networks (pp. 34-35). This once again ties to his strange equation of all India with the same, immutable “Hindu culture” (p. 36). While older ‘traditional’ literature treats early modern overland trade as in terminal decline, overtaken by European-dominated overseas trade by the eighteenth century, a large body of literature has argued that overland trade systems, such as the horse trade or the trade in textiles to Central Asia and Iran, retained or even expanded their importance in the early modern period.
 
Especially ironic given Johnson’s sharp dichotomy between pre-modern Indian/Mughal ideas of wealth and modern Company ones is that the rule of the Company in India was significantly bulwarked by the credit extended to it by Indian banking firms. Such financiers had invited Company rule in Surat in 1759 in response to their conflict with the local nawab. In the first war between the Company and the Marathas, it was these firms’ loans that allowed the supply of soldiers in the field. Decades later, Indian banks had a major stake in the invasion of Afghanistan (1839-42). Besieged in Kabul, British officer Eldred Pottinger attempted to secure cash by issuing multiple hundis (bills of exchange) worth over 1.3 million rupees to Indian treasuries to pay for a retreat to Peshawar. However the banks restricted payments into British treasuries, seeing the Kabul occupation as moribund: its failure threatened several banks with collapse. This in turn threatened the stability of colonial government at large.
 
The lack of up-to-date, accurate information on Indian history in Enemy of all Mankind is not all that surprising when one considers that, for a 250-odd page book, the bibliography is less than four and a quarter pages, or 69 entries, long. Many of Johnson’s claims are uncited, or at best supported by older books, often by non-specialists. As a result, every chapter focusing on India becomes a frustrating exercise in running into one error or misinterpretation after the other. Popular history can be entertaining and thought-provoking, but it must be held to a better standard.
 
Sources:
  1. Steven Johnson, Enemy of all Mankind: a True Story of Piracy, Power and History’s First Global Manhunt. Riverhead Books, 2020.
Paragraphs 1-4:
  1. Aniruddha Ray, The Sultanate of Delhi (1206-1526). Routledge, 2019.
  2. Richard M. Eaton, India in the Persianate Age 1000-1765. Allen Lane, 2019.
  3. Stephen F. Dale, Babur: Timurid Prince and Mughal Emperor 1483-1530. Cambridge University Press, 2018.
Paragraphs 5-8:
  1. Cormac Ó Gráda, “The Honourable Company: A History of the English East India Company. By John Keay,” The Journal of Economic History 56, no. 1 (1996).
  2. Jos Gommans, The Rise of the Indo-Afghan Empire c. 1710-1780. Brill, 1995.
  3. Lakshmi Subramanian, "Banias and the British: The Role of Indigenous Credit in the Process of Imperial Expansion in Western India in the Second Half of the Eighteenth Century," Modern Asian Studies 21, no. 3 (1987).
  4. Prasannan Parthasarathi, “Money and Ritual in Eighteenth-Century South India,” The Medieval History Journal 19, no. 1 (2016).
  5. Scott Levi, The Bukharan Crisis: a Connected History of 18th-Century Central Asia. University of Pittsburgh Press, 2020.
  6. Scott Levi, “The Indian Merchant Diaspora in Early Modern Central Asia and Iran," Iranian Studies 32, no. 4 (1999)
  7. Shah Mahmoud Hanifi, “Impoverishing a Colonial Frontier: Cash, Credit, and Debt in Nineteenth-Century Afghanistan,” Iranian Studies 37, no. 2 (2004).
submitted by vesrynk45 to badhistory [link] [comments]


2020.08.24 19:42 partypastor Unreached People Group of the Week - Lyuli in Uzbekistan

Sup guys, I accidentally slept till 9 today, so my day is all wonky but I'm sitting in class now so its the perfect time to work on this post right? I always pick massive people groups so here is a smaller one that we can pray for! Meet the Lyuli in Uzbekistan!
Also, I couldn't get the wikipedia articles to link well, so they're bolded instead and you'll just have to trust me, sorry bout it.
How Unreached Are They?
Math is easy but sad today. The Lyuli people are 0% Christian. That means there is maybe (and hopefully) a few believers out of their entire population of 12,000 people.
There are portions of Scripture translated but not an entire bible nor even the New Testament as a whole,
What are they like?
Most of the Lyuli people live in Tajikistan, Uzbekistan or Kyrgyzstan. A smaller number live in Russia. Their language is a dialect of Tajik, a bigger Turkic language.
Lyuli families have clans and sub-clans. They are closed towards anyone outside the Lyuli community, especially since they are not accepted by many of the peoples they meet. They might be better accepted by Tajiks than other Central Asian peoples because of the similar language. Joshua Project
Women do not have an equal status to men in Roma society. They do not have the same rights, but they have many obligations. They have to give birth to many children whether they want to or not — a large family is a way to gain respect among the community, and the first question [women] get is how many children they have. The only chance for female education is before marriage, and that is extremely rare. Particularly because marriages are held at a very young age; girls are married at the age of 14 or 15. Medium
History Lesson
The ancestors of the Lyuli people were probably a caste of singers and dancers who, because of economic hardship, had to move elsewhere. They were scattered to several countries including what is now Uzbekistan. Joshua Project
There are several names for the Lyuli: Jughi, Multani or Luli. However, they refer to themselves as Mugat or Mughat (Persian: مغان‎, derived from Old Persian magi, "fire-worshipper"), as well as Ghurbat (Arabic: غربات‎), which means "lonely". The term Multani signifies a person who originates from the city of Multan (in modern-day Pakistan), because some of the Lyuli emigrated from Multan around 1380 AD. Wikipedia
What do they believe?
The Lyuli people are 100 percent Sunni Muslim.
Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam, followed by 80–90% of the world's Muslims, characterized by a greater emphasis upon the traditions of the prophet and his companions. Its name comes from the word Sunnah, referring to the behaviour of the Islamic prophet Prophet Muhammad. Wikipedia
The Lyuli Roma identify as Sunni Muslims. They observe prayers, as well as all the other religious requirements and celebrations. In lay Muslim society they face discrimination from Uzbeks and Tajiks, who do not consider them “real” Muslims because of pagan elements to their religious practices, their caste system, and worship of fire. The Lyuli community’s understanding of Islam is more about a popular Islamic spiritualism combined with elements of the pre-Islamic past, which remain to this day in the lives of the Lyuli Roma. Medium
How can we pray for them?
Brothers, my heart’s desire and prayer to God for them is that they may be saved. (Romans 10:1)
____________________________________________________________________________________________
Here are the previous weeks threads on the UPG of the Week for Reformed
People Group Country Date Posted Beliefs
Lyuli Uzbekistan 08/24/2020 Islam
Kyrgyz Kyrgyzstan 08/17/2020 Islam*
Yakut Russia 08/10/2020 Animism*
Northern Katang Laos 08/03/2020 Animism
Uyghur Kazakhstan 07/27/2020 Islam
Syrian (Levant Arabs) Syria 07/20/2020 Islam
Teda Chad 07/06/2020 Islam
Kotokoli Togo 06/28/2020 Islam
Hobyot Oman 06/22/2020 Islam
Moor Sri Lanka 06/15/2020 Islam
Shaikh Bangladesh 06/08/2020 Islam
Khalka Mongols Mongolia 06/01/2020 Animism
Comorian France 05/18/2020 Islam
Bedouin Jordan 05/11/2020 Islam
Muslim Thai Thailand 05/04/2020 Islam
Nubian Uganda 04/27/2020 Islam
Kraol Cambodia 04/20/2020 Animism
Tay Vietnam 04/13/2020 Animism
Yoruk Turkey 04/06/2020 Islam
Xiaoliangshn Nosu China 03/30/2020 Animism
Jat (Muslim) Pakistan 03/23/2020 Islam
Beja Bedawi Egypt 03/16/2020 Islam
Tunisian Arabs Tunisia 03/09/2020 Islam
Yemeni Arab Yemen 03/02/2020 Islam
Bosniak Croatia 02/24/2020 Islam
Azerbaijani Georgia 02/17/2020 Islam
Zaza-Dimli Turkey 02/10/2020 Islam
Huichol Mexico 02/03/2020 Animism
Kampuchea Krom Cambodia 01/27/2020 Buddhism
Lao Krang Thailand 01/20/2020 Buddhism
Gilaki Iran 01/13/2020 Islam
Uyghurs China 01/01/2020 Islam
Israeli Jews Israel 12/18/2019 Judaism
Drukpa Bhutan 12/11/2019 Buddhism
Malay Malaysia 12/04/2019 Islam
Lisu (Reached People Group) China 11/27/2019 Christian
Dhobi India 11/20/2019 Hinduism
Burmese Myanmar 11/13/2019 Buddhism
Minyak Tibetans China 11/06/2019 Buddhism
Yazidi Iraq 10/30/2019 Animism*
Turks Turkey 10/23/2019 Islam
Kurds Syria 10/16/2019 Islam
Kalmyks Russia 10/09/2019 Buddhism
Luli Tajikistan 10/02/2019 Islam
Japanese Japan 09/25/2019 Shintoism
Urak Lawoi Thailand 09/18/2019 Animism
Kim Mun Vietnam 09/11/2019 Animism
Tai Lue Laos 09/04/2019 Bhuddism
Sundanese Indonesia 08/28/2019 Islam
Central Atlas Berbers Morocco 08/21/2019 Islam
Fulani Nigeria 08/14/2019 Islam
Sonar India 08/07/2019 Hinduism
Pattani Malay Thailand 08/02/2019 Islam
Thai Thailand 07/26/2019 Buddhism
Baloch Pakistan 07/19/2019 Islam
Alawite Syria 07/12/2019 Islam*
Huasa Cote d'Ivoire 06/28/2019 Islam
Chhetri Nepal 06/21/2019 Hinduism
Beja Sudan 06/14/2019 Islam
Yinou China 06/07/2019 Animism
Kazakh Kazakhstan 05/31/2019 Islam
Hui China 05/24/2019 Islam
Masalit Sudan 05/17/2019 Islam
As always, if you have experience in this country or with this people group, feel free to comment or PM me and I will happily edit it so that we can better pray for these peoples!
Here is a list of definitions in case you wonder what exactly I mean by words like "Unreached"
submitted by partypastor to Reformed [link] [comments]


2020.08.24 03:49 xarsha_93 Crusader Kinging for Dummies

So, you've crushed the infidels under your boot, you've sieged their castles, you've sacked their towns, you've burnt their false temples and today you rule over a Holy Kingdom ripped from barbarous hands. What now?
I'm going to share my Outre-Mer experiences here and how I turned a tiny, Hail Mary Virgin Mother of God, enemy-surrounded Kingdom of Jerusalem into a Chad Outre-Mer Kingdom. (With CK3 around the corner, this is obviously the best time to share CK2 guides). This guide will function as a general guide to ruling a Crusader Kingdom and more specifically, forming an ideal Outre-Mer empire with Outre-Mer Culture and Catholic religion. It's based on my successes and my failures. Definitely make use of the comments to add further thoughts.
Starting Point
Quite typically, I started as Roger of Hauteville. A really great start for a few reasons. One, position is great, you should be sending your ships to the Crusade target 3-4 months before the start date, this gives you a bit more time to prep than if you're farther away. (And yes, no matter where you are, be first on the scene at the crusade).
Two, Roger has an excellent position to Holy War a handful of Muslims and pick up the piety necessary to determine your ideal Crusade target.
Now, the renard likely won't make it to the Crusade start date (Though he might! He's not that old!). Either way, his son is a big beefy boy who makes a great commander after you've raised him to eat all his spinach. You want to be a bit careful with piety here though, as I got lucky and had him die right after the Crusades were announced, early enough for the target switch. Hunting Focus and a good boy gift are your best bets here.
Crusader Beneficiary?
I say yes. I think it's easier to just focus on your new kingdom than have to deal with the old. That's even with the relative proximity of Sicily to Jerusalem. If you're farther away, I say definitely yes. You're just going to get bogged down.
This is another area where Roger shines. He has a relatively large family tree. I was able to invite a lesser Karling to my court and marry him to a female Hauteville and get a Karling bloodline Hauteville who I then raised to be my future King of Jerusalem.
Crusade Target
I recommend Jerusalem. I like it for role-playing reasons. You'll probably have to switch it from Egypt. I actually am not certain if you can form Outre-Mer culture in Egypt (if that's your cup of tea), but either way, Egypt is not obligatory for forming the Outre-Mer anyway, so Jerusalem is a better bet.
Crusading
LAND LAND LAND LAND. Take as much land as possible, if the Muslims take Rome, as they did in my game, and you're nervous about outright losing, go there, crush their Italian Front army and then get back to snatching land. Leave retaking Roman properties to the Papacy. Retaking doesn't get you any points, only taking.
Day One
Alright, after winning your new kingdom, your new focus is consolidating power. You have a bunch of other European ruling over your territory. Luckily you've got some cash and piety to burn. Use it.
First, plot to revoke counties. As many as you can. I got my main counties this way, Acre and Hebron in the Duchy of Jerusalem.
Second, revindicate titles from your vassals. A few of them will be kids and women as they're allowed to be crusader beneficiaries. The Pope is likely to grant you permission so take it. Get as many counties as you can hold.
During these early days, I actually got all the holdings I would personally hold for the next 200 years (that's where I am right now in this game). I only hold my primary duchy and Ascalon, Tyr, and Beyrouth as well as additional baronies in a few of those.
Also invest in anything that gets you more retinue. Retinue, as always, is king.
I also recommend switching to Outre-Mer culture at this early point, You should have enough culture to do so after winning that crusade. It will also make any vassals you create in cities or bishoprics share that same culture and you want to start spreading culture around ASAP
Your main focus at this stage is military, later when I talk about further crusades, I'll mention some of the back-burner tactics you can use to advance your cultural and religious aims.
Further Conquering
Now, you have a few ways to grab more land now that you're in the very heart of darkness. The rest of this guide will focus on them and how to deal with the conquests.
  1. Holy Wars
After you get your military right, you're going to want to start Holy Warring. Taking duchies as quickly as possible. I recommend focusing on collecting one kingdom by Holy War so you can take a whole other one by crusade later on. I chipped away at Syria and took Sinai as well before the crusade cool-down expired and I was able to get Yemen.
Now, your new territories will be in ideal shape. You will hold them all yourself. This is perfect because you can decide who they go to.
I recommend just auto-creating barons, bourgmeisters, and bishops, particularly if you're Outre-Mer, because you won't have anyone else of your culture to draw on.
As for counts, apart from sharing your culture and religion obviously, you want two things. No matter what, you want them to have high stewardship, because higher stewardship will increase the chances of flipping the conquered country to your culture. Also, if they are going to be your direct vassal, you want them to be content and not envious or ambitious. However, if you're going to put them under a duke, I recommend focusing on stewardship for indirect vassal counts and then putting them under a content duke.
One other thing I recommend is trying to keep your vassals from getting too powerful so make sure none of your new appointees are also in line to inherit other counties. The easiest way I've found to do this quickly is to only appoint low-born men. You can easily filter for this.
Now, another good trick if you want to improve your family dynasty score is matrilineally marry women from your dynasty to these low-born fellas. You'll have to invite them to your court first usually.
  1. Crusades
Obviously you'll want to win the Crusades and at this point, you do want to keep the conquered lands for yourself. You might have to feed a good bit of coin to the Pope to stay in his good graces, especially if you're also requesting the Crusades yourself. You want to make sure you don't get excommunicated, after all.
After winning, you have a bit of a different situation from a Holy War as many of your new vassals will be the crusade beneficiaries of other participants. Here, you've got a bit of a problem. You can always try to take as many of these titles as you can, but another trick is to try to get their kids raised by folks with your culture. This is actually a bit tricky as usually any kids they already have will stay back in the home country and that ruler won't want to give over any kids to you.
Another thing to watch out for is inheritance. I know that you can't name any inheritors as your own beneficiaries but I noticed some of my territories passed out of my control when the new holder became king or duke of some random European land. Nip this shit in the bud.
If any of your new vassals have adult inheritors, invite them to your court and matrilineally marry them to women of your own culture / dynasty. Then you can wait for time to take its toll or just off the current holder yourself, especially if the inheritor you want is a brother and the current holder's partner is still of child-bearing age.
  1. Invasion
What? But I'm Catholic!
This is where I recommend getting the Alexander Bloodline, which gives you a once in a lifetime Invasion casus belli. Being in the Middle East, you're in the right place for it, you just need an emperor title. I made a custom one once I had Jerusalem, Syria, and Arabia, but the Empire of Arabia should also be doable.
This lovely CB is everything you want. Once per life, you can take a whole kingdom AND any other lands you want. It works great for two things. One, taking infidel land and two, taking random baronies held by other European powers. I had my old homeland of Sicily holding some counties of Egypt they'd taken before the crusade and some other random holdings. So I invaded for what I needed.
Also lets you take any Byzantine land you might need as they might chip away at the Seljuks once you've weakened them some. Hell, even Abyssinia got some chunks of Yemen before I could and as they were Miaphysite, I couldn't very well holy war em.
After an invasion, you take direct control of any holdings you control, regardless of whether they're in the target kingdom and vassalize any other holdings in the target kingdom. Obviously go for controlling as much as possible. I actually just kept a war with the Byzantines going 4 years after 100% warscore to get all of Greece alongside Thrace.
Make sure you can swallow what you chew though. You'll go over your demesne limit after one of these, often by a good chunk, and you might also go over vassal limit so make sure you have the cash to form duchies and hand them out as well.
Other Considerations
Imperial Administration
This is also super useful. Often, newly formed kingdoms won't have primogeniture, so you might have to throw them to Vice-Roy until you can get them to pass to your main heir. Also helps you keep vassal limit under control. I often throw newly conquered lands under a vice-roy until they're producing money and I want closer access to the cash. Remember that each level between you and the holding takes a cut of the profit.
Merchant Republics
I made Cyprus a merchant republic pretty early on for that sweet sweet dough. Then I did the same with Socotra. it's a good idea to keep your MR's far away enough that they don't cannibalize each other.
Retinues
That Outre-Mer Retinue, baby. So sweet. One last tip I've got is to buy up new retinues after a huge conquest when your limit is super high. Then you give away the lands but keep the swole-ass camel-boi army.
Anyway, that's all I've got. If I think of anything else, I'll add edits. Here's my game map nearly 200 years after my 1066 start. I'm not worried about the Mongols, they've only got about 70k troops and I've got about 80 myself. The Holy Roman Empire is full of assholes though and I'm going to focus on breaking them apart. The only lands I plan on taking are Bulgaria and Epire, though Sicily looks yummy and hey, it'd be a hell of a homecoming.

edit: One other thing you can do to ensure maximum culture spread is appoint Midas Touched tutors to underage counts / counts-to-be.
submitted by xarsha_93 to CrusaderKings [link] [comments]


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